MODEL OF BACKSTROKE SWIMMING TECHNIQUE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Left armstroke period
1. Left pull & right recovery phase
2. Left push & right recovery phase

Right armstroke period
3. Right pull & left recovery phase
4. Right push & left recovery phase




FULL STROKE CYCLE



AIM of movements High forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of left arm pull
  ending: at the end of right arm push



General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Optimum alterations of action and relaxation of muscles during stroking and recovery
Increase propulsive forces by arm strokes and leg kicks
Decrease resistance of the body all times
Ensure rigid transfer of power to the body from stroking arm and kicking leg through locked joints with correct timing
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase

Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements as follows:
inhale- during first part of recovery arm, with first part of pull of other arm
hold the breath - during entry and pull , with push of other arm
exhale - during push, with entry of other arm
next inhale- as before


ARMSTROKE PERIOD (LEFT OR RIGHT)



AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of arm pull
  ending: the end of arm push



Parameters:
Forward movement during stroke: - 1.2-1.4 (metres)
(This parameter indicates how effective is swimmers stroke. It must be half from full cycle stroke length)
Relative stroke speed of hand backward: (-0.5)-(-0.1) (m/sec)
(If arm stroke is effective and rational, then hands horizontal speed component backward during stroking, related to water, must be slow to create high body speed forward)

Cognitive assignments:
Make stroke soft at the beginning with acceleration at the end, with good water feeling and low relative hand speed - sticking to water
Make recovery also with acceleration, opposite to the stroking arm, through fixed shoulderline (kayaking principle)
Keep the body position flat and high
Make 3 leg kicks during one arm stroke period
Move forward during stroke as much as possible
Combine inhaling with recovery and pulling actions of arms, exhaling with arm pushing action


PHASES :

1. ARM PULL & RECOVERY PHASE







AIM of movements Try to maintain forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the arm stroke
  ending: at the mid point of arm stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during arm pull & another recovery: 1.5-1.9 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows efficiency of first part of stroke- pulling. It must be usually slightly slower then speed of the next phase- pushing)
Hands pulling slip forward -backward 0,1 - 0.3 (m)
(This parameter indicate economical side of that arms pull and quality of feeling of water during first part of stroke. Then more positive then better, not negative slip backward)

Requirements for self control:
At the beginning of the pull the shoulder position must be relatively high



The timing of catch must be simultaneous with same side leg kick
The arm action at the beginning of pull must be with good catch down, aside, with fixed elbow position



The action of opposite leg kick during the pull must be diagonal soft, with fixed knee for force transfer
Hand slip during pull must be positive, gliding forward, let your body move on the pull



Arm position at the middle of stroke must be vertical, elbow and hand on shoulder line.


2. ARM PUSH & RECOVERY PHASE



AIM of movements Try to reach maximum forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the mid point of arm stroke
  ending: at the end of arm stroke



Parameters:
Forward speed during arm push & recovery : 1,6 - 2,2 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows efficiency of second part of stroke- pushing. It must be usually slightly higher then speed of the previous phase- pulling)
Hand pushing slip backward (-0.30) - (-0.10) (m)
(If hand is slipping too much backward, then it means that arm is working relatively alone, “breaking” water with high power, not economical)

Requirements for self control:
The arm push must be with good acceleration, elbow and hand close to body, with wrist cocked
The timing of recovering arm entry must be before the end of the push



The leg kick during push must be with same side leg with good transfer of force, impulsive, correct timing for fixing the knee and hip at the end of kick
The arm exit must begin first with the shoulder, but not too early - only after push is over
Avoid hand slip through the water - try to stick hand to the water