MODEL OF BREASTSTROKE TURN TECHNIQUE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Swim in period
1. Swimming before turn
2. Approaching phase

Turning period
3. Rotation phase
4. Pushing phase

Swim out period
5. Gliding phase
6. Long pull phase
7. Second gliding phase
8. Arm recovery & leg bending phase
9. First kick & pullout phase
10. Swimming after turn




AIM of movements Try to create higher turn speed than swimming speed !






Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the stroke cycle before turn
  ending: at the end of the stroke cycle after turn





General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for proper approach to the wall before turn
Keep relaxed during rotation and gliding
Increase impulsive forces for push-off, kicking and pullout actions using elasticity of muscles
Decrease resistance during push-off, gliding and recovery actions
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push-off, kicks and pullout
Use inertial momentum during rotation
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements
Inhale during rotation and begin breathing after turning actions are over
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES:

1. SWIMMING BEFORE TURN



AIM of movements Try to continue with same swimming speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at start of the last full stroke cycle before turn
  ending: at end of the last full stroke cycle before turn

Parameters:
Forward speed: 1.35 - 1.50 (m/sec)
(Speed before turn is necessary to compare to speed after turn)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate right moment for touching the wall


2. APPROACHING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase approach speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at end of the last full stroke cycle before turn
  ending: when the hands touch the wall





Parameters:
Forward speed before touch: 1.40 - 1.60 (m/sec)
(speed before touch indicate how good was timing to touch the wall, compared to swimming speed before turn)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate the hands touch with the end of the leg kick


3. ROTATION PHASE

AIM of movements Try to minimise the duration of rotation !

Limiting positions beginning: when the hands touch the wall
  ending: when the feet touch the wall





Parameters:
Duration of rotation : 0.90 - 0.76 (sec)
(Indicate effect of grouping and turning)
Forward speed of hips during rotation : -0.45 - 0.70 (m/sec)
(Shows that hips stops during beginning of rotation or continues moving forward)

Requirements for self control:
Continue movement of hips to the wall with high speed
Avoid hands sticking to the wall, take one and then the other off the wall quickly
Make good grouping of legs during rotation
Place the feet correctly and simultaneously on the wall
Time feet to touch the wall with recovering arm entry into the water
Make quick inhalation during rotation
During rotation take body position on side for the start of push-off


4. PUSHING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase pushing power and speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet touch the wall
  ending: when the feet leave the wall





Parameters:
Forward speed during push : 1.40 - 2.10 (m/sec)
(Mean speed of hips during pushing indicate effect of pushing action. Mean speed should be analysed as beginning from zero and ending as max speed when feet leaves the wall : mean speed 1.5 m/sec means that max speed is about 3.0 m/sec and mean speed 2.0
Push off duration : 0.34 - 0.26 (sec)
(Push off duration indicate power of pushing : then shorter then better, but if swimmer is waiting before pushing, this duration considered as extra unnecessary time)

Requirements for self control:
Take streamlined position of body and arms for push, hide head between the arms
Avoid twisting from hips during push and push body to breast position
Keep back rigid and fixed during push
Keep horizontal direction of push, relatively deep, under wave
Begin push-off immediately after feet touch and make push duration very short


5. GLIDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to maintain gliding speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the wall
  ending: at the start of the first arm pull





Parameters:
Forward speed of body during first glide : 1.90 - 2.20 (m/sec)
(Higher glide speed indicates good gliding quality also right, early timing of first long arms pull)
Duration of the first glide: 1.35 - 0.75 (sec)
(If glide speed is high, then duration may be longer ,if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Head , body and legs position must be very streamlined during glide
Make glide deeper for long underwater actions
Take good horizontal body , head and arms position during glide
Avoid long duration of first glide to maintain high speed


6. LONG PULL PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first arm pull
  ending: at the end of first arm pull





Parameters:

Forward speed during first long pull : 1.75 - 2.00 (m/sec)
(This parameter indicate directly efficiency of that arm pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of long pull, must be as soon as you feel able to increase your speed by pulling
Make long pull with one dolphin leg kick
The pull action must be wide, with good acceleration and high elbow position
Keep body position flat during long pull


7. SECOND GLIDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to avoid sharp loss of speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the long pull stroke
  ending: at the beginning of arms recovery



Parameters:
Forward speed during second glide : 1.55 - 1.82 (m/sec)
(Too high speed indicate early start of recovery actions, too low shows resistance of position or too long duration of that glide)

Requirements for self control:
Keep body position streamlined


8. ARM RECOVERY & LEG BENDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to reduce loss of forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the beginning of arms recovery
  ending: at the beginning of underwater leg kick



Parameters:
Forward speed during recovery actions : 0.75 - 1.25 (m/sec)
(High value shows quality of recovery movements by arms and legs, but it depends also from level of speed before recovery)

Requirements for self control:
During recovery bring arms close to body, with small resistance
Bring legs to the high position for kick, bending knees, feet high, less from hips, knees widely separated
Timing of beginning of bending legs must be late, only after arms are near the shoulder line


9. FIRST KICK & PULLOUT PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed again !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first underwater leg kick
  ending: at the start of the next leg kick



Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke cycle : 1.2 - 1.4 (m/sec)
(It must be higher then swimming speed , it is allowed only once pull under water after turn, according rules, so use that option)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of pullout stroke must be in time, at the optimum depth of the body, not too deep
Make pullout leg kick impulsive and make the armstroke to rise head up to the surface in time, at the widest part of arm pull
Keep high body position on the surface at the end of pullout stroke cycle


10. SWIMMING AFTER TURN
AIM of movements Try to continue with same speed as before turn !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first stroke cycle after turn
  ending: at the start of the next stroke cycle





Parameters:
Speed of the swimming after turn : 1.35 - 1.50 (m/sec)
(This parameter need to be compared to swimming speed before turn and must be same or higher )

Requirements for self control:
Continue your normal rhythm of swimming with swimming speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race