MODEL OF I.M. TURN TECHNIQUE FROM BREASTSTROKE TO FREESTYLE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Swim in period
1. Swimming before turn
2. Approaching phase

Turning period
3. Rotation phase
4. Pushing phase

Swim out period
5. Gliding phase
6. Underwater kicking phase
7. Pullout phase
8. Swimming after turn








AIM of movements
Create high turn speed during change of swimming style !






Limiting positions beginning: at start the last breaststroke cycle before turn
  ending: at end of the first freestyle stroke cycle after turn

General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for proper approach to the wall before turn
Keep relaxed during rotation and gliding
Increase impulsive forces for push-off, kicking and pullout actions using elasticity of muscles
Decrease resistance during push-off , gliding and recovery actions
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push-off, kicks and pullout
Use inertial momentum during rotation
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements
Inhale during rotation and begin breathing after turning actions are over
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES:

1. SWIMMING BEFORE TURN





AIM of movements Try to continue with same swimming speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at start of the last full breaststroke stroke cycle before turn
  ending: at end of the last full breaststroke stroke cycle before turn

Parameters:
Approaching breaststroke swimming speed: 1.30 - 1.45 (m/sec)
(Higher speed before turn is precondition for better turning actions)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate right moment for touching the wall


2. APPROACHING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase approach speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the last full breaststroke stroke cycle before turn
  ending: when the hands touch the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed before touch: 1.3 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows efficiency of timing last stroke before rotation. It is normal that speed before touch is higher then mean breaststroke swimming speed)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate the hands touch with the end of the leg kick


3. ROTATION PHASE





AIM of movements Try to minimise the duration of rotation !

Limiting positions beginning: when the hands touch the wall
  ending: when the feet touch the wall

Parameters:
Duration of rotation : 0.90 - 0.82 (sec)
(Indicate effect of turning )
Forward speed of hips during rotation : -0.5 - 0.8 (m/sec)
(Shows how quick hips moving during rotation forward, what is very important for better turn)

Requirements for self control:
Continue movement of hips to the wall with high speed
Avoid hands sticking to the wall, take one hand and then the other off the wall quickly
Make good grouping of legs during rotation
Place the feet correctly and simultaneously to the wall
Time feet to touch the wall with recovering arm entry into the water
Make quick inhalation during rotation
During rotation take body position on side for the start of push-off


4. PUSHING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase pushing power and speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet touch the wall
  ending: when the feet leave the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed during push : 1.3 - 1.7 (m/sec)
(Mean speed of hips during pushing indicate effect of pushing action. Mean speed should be analysed as beginning from zero and ending as max speed when feet leaves the wall : mean speed 1.5 m/sec means that max speed is about 3.0 m/sec and mean speed 2.0
Push off duration : 0.35 - 0.28 (sec)
(Push off duration indicate power of pushing : then shorter then better, but if swimmer is waiting before pushing, this duration considered as extra unnecessary time)

Requirements for self control:
Take streamlined position of body and arms for push, hide head between the arms
Avoid twisting from hips during push and push body to side position
Keep back rigid and fixed during push
Keep horizontal direction of push, relatively deep, under wave
Begin push-off immediately after feet touch and make duration of push very short


5. GLIDING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to maintain gliding speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the wall
  ending: at the start of the first leg kick

Parameters:
Forward speed of gliding after push : 2.20 - 2.50 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows swimmer hydrodynamic streamline qualities and timing of the first leg kick actions)

Requirements for self control:
Head , body and legs must be very streamlined during glide
Make glide on side or on breast body position
Take good horizontal body , head and arm position during glide
Avoid long glide duration after push to maintain high speed


5. UNDERWATER KICKING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to not lose forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first leg kick
  ending: at the start of the first arm pullout stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during leg kicks : 1.7 - 2.2 (m/sec)
(Efficiency of underwater undulation movements and leg kicks)
Duration of underwater leg kicks: 0.06 - 1.4 (sec)
(If speed is high, then duration may be longer, if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Leg action must be undulating movements with correct force transfer and rhythm on side or breast body position
Keep head between stretched arms during leg kicks
Make one or two underwater undulating leg kicks on side or on breast body position to maintain high forward speed, and decide to begin first armpull from optimum depth


6. PULLOUT PHASE







AIM of movements Try to increase pullout speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first pullout stroke
  ending: at the end of the second pullout stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke : 1.60 - 1.90 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that first pull)
Forward speed during second pullout stroke : 1.60 - 1.90 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that second pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of first pullout stroke must be in time, at the end of the last dolphin leg kick, and optimum depth of the body - not too deep
Simultaneously at the beginning of first arm pull switch over to flutter leg kicks, so that catch of right arm pull is co-ordinated with the left leg kick up, or vice versa
Make first arm pull with extreme stretching forward of the other arm
Body must be rising up to the surface at the end of the first arm pull
Timing of the beginning second arm pull must be in time, at the end of first arm push, not too late, avoid extra gliding between strokes
The action of both arm strokes during pullout must be long with good acceleration, fixed high elbow positions
Avoid breathing actions during first pullout, and keep body position flat
Try to make pullout through “ one hole “ on water surface, head first followed by body and legs - not like a submarine


10. SWIMMING AFTER TURN





AIM of movements Try to begin new swimming style with high speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the beginning of the first freestyle stroke cycle
  ending: ending at the end of the first freestyle stroke cycle

Parameters:
Freestyle swimming speed after turn : 1.60 - 1.90 (m/sec)
(High freestyle speed indicate good swimming technique after turn movements and must be compared with pullout speeds before it, as well as with breaststroke swimming speed before turn)

Requirements for self control:
Begin your normal rhythm of freestyle swimming with speed according your individual tactical plan of the race